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UNDER CONSTRUCTION

The relationship between the RESULTS and DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION(S)  sections is quite complex and differs between fields and type of  paper being submitted. The following is general advice. Compare it with close reading of papers in your field.

What is the difference between a results section and a discussion section?

The Results section focuses on `Reporting results', the Discussion on `Commenting on results' by interpreting, accounting for, evaluating or comparing with previous work. The main purpose of a Conclusion is to summarize the research by highlighting the findings, evaluating and pointing out possible lines of future research as well as suggesting implications for teaching and learning.

Source: Yang Ruiying and Desmond Allison, English for Specific Purposes,
 Volume 22, Issue 4, 2003, Pages 365-385.

A general opinion is that the discussion section is a mirror image of the introduction.
 It moves from specific results to general implications whereas the introduction describes the general background and then discusses the specific paper. A poor discussion section is also one of the most common reasons for rejecting a paper for publication.

However, research has shown that the difference between results and discussion is not so clear. Many writers have an extensive amount of commentary in their results sections. It is important to read closely papers in your field. http://www.uow.edu.au/research/current/results.html

Here is a useful discussion of the discussion section!

http://www.languages.ait.ac.th/EL21DISC.HTM

Be precise

-> The method is robust. -> This method is 35% faster in terms of computation time than existing methods; This method reduces the cost by 15% etc.

In your conclusion section make sure you give precise conclusions and avoid vague words like better, good, effective, useful, valuable, Etc.

A framework for Discussion sections:

Discussion sections have a three-part framework involving a series of move cycles

combining two or more of these eight moves:

1. information move (background about theory/research aims/methodology)

2. finding (with or without a reference to a graph or table)

3. expected or unexpected outcome (comment on whether the result is expected

or not)

4. reference to previous research

5. explanation (reasons for expected or unexpected results)

6. claim [contribution to research (sometimes with recommendations for action)]

7. limitation

8. recommendation (suggestions for future research).

The three-part framework and move cycle series are:

I. Introduction (moves 1, or 2, or 6)

II. Evaluation (the key move cycles are 2+4, 2+6, 3+4, and 3+5. Other less

common cycles are 6+4 and 4+6)

III. Conclusion (moves 2+6, or 8, or 8+6, or 7+6).

Source: Peacock, M.  System. Volume 30, Issue 4, December 2002, Pages 479-497

CHECKLIST

I have noted any problems with the methods or data.
 I note the implications of these problems and how they might affect the validity of my conclusions.__

I have explained why my results differ from previous research if applicable.__

I have quantified, if possible, or given the exact results that I have achieved.____

I have analyzed the structure of papers in my field to show the relationship between the results, discussion and conclusion sections. Short papers may have the three sections mixed together, for example. http://www.languages.ait.ac.th/EL21DISC.HTM  ___

I have identified and clearly explained the importance of the findings. ____

I have mentioned some possible areas for further research, the importance of the findings or the implications and possible applications of the research. ______

I have mentioned any problems with the methods or data. ______


Two of the most common structures in Methods and Results sections are PROCESS and CAUSE AND EFFECT

Read this page for an overview of the difference between process and cause and effect.

Here is a reference site for understanding process writing including instructions.

Common cause and effect mistakes

Discussion of cause and effect.

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