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Parallel structure

READ this site briefly:

To fix parallel clause problems:

Step 1 Locate sentences which include a list.
Step 2 Circle the items in the list, especially the verbs.
Step 3 Make sure that the items look similar in shape (all with ing for example). If they dont look closer for the part of speech of each one.
Step 4 If in doubt, read the sentence out loud. Sentences that are not parallel often sound strange to the ear.

Tips: Circle the punctuation mark in a list. It should be a colon:

Practice: The dictionary can be used for these purposes:
to find
word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs.

Pronoun Reference/ Agreement
Skim your paper. Stop at danger words such as It, This, That, These, and They.
See if you can immediately find the nouns it refers to. If it takes you more than a couple of seconds it is possibly unclear.

For reference:

Dont forget to use summary nouns to improve your writing.

Parallel form
TASK: Take this quiz

If it is difficult read this page:


Take this quiz.

If you have any incorrect answers refer to the following pages.


How to fix fragments.


Step 1  Circle the subordinators of the sentence.

 Examples: after, even though, although, because, if, since, unless, when, while


Step 2  Count the number of clauses in the sentence. If there is only one, you have a fragment.


Run on sentences
There are four ways to fix run on sentences.

Run-on sentences

Dangling Participles

This type of structure is often found in academic writing.


TASK: Rewrite this sentence.

 After reading the original study, the article remains unconvincing.


Refer to this site for the answer: 

The Sentence Editing


These links have some good editing and proofreading advice

A useful Editing checklist full of links to common problems


Review these sites next time you are writing a paper

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